Aquatic Vegetation Management

Identification

The first step to treatment is correct identification, and calculation of area to be treated. Without correct I.D., treatments can be ineffective if the wrong product is used or used at the wrong product rate.  

Treatment Methods

Depending on the size of the body of water, we can use various methods to treat growth.  Boat applications are used for larger bodies of water, while 75% of smaller ponds can be done by shoreline application.

Below there are a few examples of the common aquatic weeds.  If you don't see the weed listed below, give us a call, send us an email with a picture, or send us a sample of the weed to help with ID and treatment options.

Algae

Filamentous Algae

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There are many species of filamentous algae, but they are all single celled alga that forms long chains that create mats that begin growing on the bottom of the pond. The mats will break loose and float to the surface, often creating large visible eyesores. Algae grows very quickly during the summer in clear water, and can completely cover a pond less than 1 acre in three days. 

Chara

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 Often called skunkweed, Chara can have a foul odor when removed from water. Chara is unlike most other algae, giving an appearance of a rooted plant that has whorled branches with 6-16 branchlets around each node. It will not extend above water surface but can top out at water surface, creating a calcified mat that becomes difficult to treat.  

Planktonic Algae

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Planktonic algae are microscopic single celled algae that for fish management are very often promoted in ponds to increase growth. In addition to growth it can aid in the shading of water that will limit the amount of other vegetation that grows. The less sunlight that can penetrate the water, the less there is a chance noxious vegetation can grow. In excess planktonic algae can become troublesome quickly depleting the oxygen in a pond and killing fish.  

Submerged Plants

Bushy Pondweed

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Bushy Pondweed is a rooted annual plant that has very small flowers at the base of leaves. It can become very dense below the water surface and is best treated in springtime during active growing season 

Coontail

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Duckweed is small green, free-floating plant that has three leaves (fronds), with a single root coming off each leaf. Duckweed is very common in still, quiet water with little wind or wave action and can form very dense colonies that can cover a pond, causing oxygen depletions. 

Eurasian Watermilfoil

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Eurasian watermilfoil is an invasive perennial plant that is very aggressive. It has red flowers that extend above the water surface a few inches on stems that are branched and reddish in color.  

Hydrilla

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Hydrilla is an invasive perennial plant that can grow in water up to 20 feet deep. It has rough teeth on the backside of the midrib to distinguish it from Elodea or Egeria. Hydrilla is very aggressive and can form think mats at the water surface, that if fragmented will cause the spread.  

Parrotfeather

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 Parrotfeather is a rooted perennial non native plant that has think bushy leaves like a cypress tree. The branches and leaves will extend out of the water sometime up to 12 inches, giving it a feather like apperance.  

Floating Plants

Azolla(Mosquito Fern)

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Duckweed is small green, free-floating plant that has three leaves (fronds), with a single root coming off each leaf. Duckweed is very common in still, quiet water with little wind or wave action and can form very dense colonies that can cover a pond, causing oxygen depletions. 

Bladderwort

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Bladderwort is a floating annual plant that produces a yellow flower that extends above the water surface. Underwater roots have air filled packets that allow them to float.

Duckweed

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Duckweed is small green, free-floating plant that has three leaves (fronds), with a single root coming off each leaf. Duckweed is very common in still, quiet water with little wind or wave action and can form very dense colonies that can cover a pond, causing oxygen depletions. 

Salvinia

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Native to South America, Salvinia, is a free floating fern that grows in dense colonies in slow moving, quiet waters. It has cup shaped leaf, with a small root system below the water. Common Salvinia and Giant Salvinia are both invasive and very aggressive. 

Watermeal

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Watermeal is a very small, free-floating plant with no root. It is the smallest seed bearing plant in the world, and will form very dense colonies.

Water Hyacinth

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Water hyacinth is a free-floating perennial plant that can grow to a height of 3 feet. Water hyacinth can grow a tall purple flower that is very striking but uncontrolled can be an aggressive invader.

Emergent Plants

Alligator Weed

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Alligator Weed is a non-native perennial plant that grows aggressively along shorelines. It has long stems with leaves and flowers that are white a ball shaped.

American Lotus

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American Lotus is a perennial plant that has very large leaves (up to 2 feet) that sometime extend above the waters surface. It can also create a large yellow or white flower that will also extend above the water.  

American Pondweed

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American Pondweed is a perennial plant with oval shaped leaves. Although it does have some submerged leaves, most are emergent laying flat on the water surface. 

Arrowhead

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Arrowhead are perennial plants that have pointed leaves that resemble an arrowhead. They can grow over 4 feet tall, and products white or light pink flowers.  

Cattail

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 Cattails have flat or rounded leaves that form cigar style flowers at the end. Cattails can grow up to 10 feet tall in damp or wet areas and can be very aggressive.  

Fragrant Water Lily

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 Water lilies are perennial plants that have 6-12 inch heart shaped leaves that float on top of the waters surface. Flowers will arise from separate stalks and may grow above the waters surface that is white or pink with a yellow center.

Frog's Bit

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Frog’s bit is perennial plant that can be free floating or rooted around the banks of ponds. Its leaves are heart shaped; usually about 3 inches wide that can lay on the waters surface or extend above it. It also produces white flowers that can be submerged or above the water. 

Lizard's Tail

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Lizard's Tail has heart shaped leaves with white flowers that bend at the end.  It can grow up to three feet in height, and can be found growing in water, but most often in muddy or swamp like areas. It has a high tolerance for shade but provides little to no value for wildlife.

Pickerelweed

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Pickerelweed is a perennial plant that has pointed bright green leaves that can grow up to 4 feet tall. From the stems arise a very pretty bright purple flower that usually only last for a day or so. 

Smartweed

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Smartweed is a perennial plant that can grow up to 3 feet tall in moist or wet soils. Leaves are long and alternate on the stem, and flowers arise from the end, that are white in color. 

Water Primrose

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Primrose is a perennial plant that has long runners that extend into the water sometimes up to 20 feet. The leaves are oval shaped with yellow flowers and can be very invasive if not controlled. 

Water Willow

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Water willows are perennial plants that are common along banks and can grow up to 3 feet tall. Leaves are elongate and have a white midvein, and will flower with purple and white flowers during the spring through fall months.